Keynotes and Tutorials
Ontology Repositories Make a World of Difference
Michael Gruninger, University of Toronto
Ontology repositories have been proposed as part of the infrastructure required to support interoperability of ontology-based software systems through the reusability and shareability of ontologies. More recently, this situation has become even more complicated by the axiomatization of ontologies in different logics and representation languages, such as OWL, SWRL, and Common Logic. This talk will explore recent work on the integration of ontologies within repositories, and pose challenges for the design, evaluation, and application of ontologies axiomatized using rules.
Probabilistic Soft Logic: A Scalable Approach for Markov Random Fields over Continuous-Valued Variables
Lise Getoor, University of Maryland
Many problems in AI require dealing with both relational structure and uncertainty. As a consequence, there is a growing need for tools that facilitate the development of complex probabilistic models with relational structure. These tools should combine high-level modeling languages with general purpose algorithms for inference in the resulting probabilistic models or probabilistic programs. A variety of such frameworks has been developed recently, based on ideas from graphical models, relational logic, or programming languages. In this talk, I will give an overview of our recent work on probabilistic soft logic (PSL), a framework for collective, probabilistic reasoning in relational domains. PSL models have been developed in a variety of domains, including collective classification, entity resolution, ontology alignment, opinion diffusion, trust in social networks, and modeling group dynamics.
A key distinguishing feature of PSL is its use of continuous-valued random variables. These can either be interpreted as soft truth values in the interval [0; 1] or as similarities. It uses first order logic rules to capture the dependency structure of the domain, based on which it builds a joint probabilistic model over all random variables. A PSL program defines a form of Markov random field over continuous-valued random variables which is computationally tractable. Inference in PSL is corresponds to convex optimization problem, which can be solved significantly more efficiently than the corresponding discrete optimization. Our recent results show that by using state-of-the-art optimization methods and distributed implementations, we can solve problems over millions of variables in minutes rather than days.
Rapid Text-based Authoring of Defeasible Higher-Order Logic Formulas, via Textual Logic and Rulelog
Benjamin Grosof, Benjamin Grosof & Associates, LLC
We present textual logic (TL), a novel approach that enables rapid semi-automatic acquisition of rich logical knowledge from text. The resulting axioms are expressed as defeasible higher-order logic formulas in Rulelog, a novel extended form of declarative logic programs. A key element of TL is textual terminology, a phrasal style of knowledge in which words/word-senses are used directly as logical constants. Another key element of TL is a method for rapid interactive disambiguation as part of logic-based text interpretation. Existential quantiers are frequently required, and we describe Rulelog's approach to making existential knowledge be defeasible. We describe results
from a pilot experiment that represented the knowledge from several thousand English sentences in the domain of college-level cell biology, for purposes of question-answering
UniLFS: A Unifying Logical Framework for Service Modeling and Contracting
Dumitru Roman, Sintef, Norway
This talk will present novel techniques for modeling and reasoning about service contracts with the help of Concurrent Transaction Logic and introduce a unifying framework called UniLFS — a Unifying Logical Framework for Service modeling and contracting. This framework significantly extends the modeling power of the previous works by allowing expressive data constraints and iterative processes in the specification of services. This approach not only captures typical procedural constructs found in established business process languages such as BPMN, but also greatly extends their functionality, enables declarative specification and reasoning about them, and opens a way for automatic generation of executable business processes from service contracts
OMG API4KB is aimed at standardizing the APIs for accessing, querying, modifying and processing ("reasoning") the content of a generic knowledge base.
Multi-Agent Activity Modeling with the Brahms Environment
Maarten Sierhuis, Ejenta and Nissan Research Center Silicon Valley
This tutorial will provide an overview of the Brahms multi-agent activity modeling language by considering a simple “day in the life” scenario, including hands-on experience with Brahms.
LegalRuleML: from Metamodel to Use Cases - A Tutorial
Tara Athan, Harold Boley, Guido Governatori, Monica Palmirani, Adrian Paschke, Adam Wyner
This tutorial presents the principles of the OASIS LegalRuleML applied to the legal domain and discuss why, how, and when LegalRuleML is well-suited for modelling norms. To provide a framework of reference, we present a comprehensive list of requirements for devising rule interchange languages that capture the peculiarities of legal rule modelling in support of legal reasoning. The tutorial comprises syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic foundations, a LegalRuleML primer, a comparison with related other approaches, as well as use case examples from the legal domain.
Formalization of Natural Language Regulations through SBVR Structured English
François Lévy, Adeline Nazarenko
Abstract. This tutorial presents an original use of SBVR to help building a set of business rules out of regulatory documents. The formalization is analyzed as a three-step process, in which SBVR-SE stands in an intermediate position between the Natural Language on the one hand and the formal language on the other hand. The rules are extracted, clarified and simplified at the general regulatory level (expert task) before being then refined according to the business application (engineer task). A methodology for these first two steps is described, with different operations composing each step. It is illustrated with examples from the literature and from the Ontorule use cases
Rules and Policy based handling of XML in Government Contexts including NIEM
David Webber, James E. Cabral, Dana Florescu
Managing information privacy and access policies is a critical need and technical challenge. Desired solutions should be both ubiquitous and syntax neutral, yet at the same time incorporate a simple and lightweight approach that meets legal policy requirements through the application of clear, consistent, and obvious assertions. Today we have low-level tools that developers know how to use for implementation, and we have legal documents created by lawyers, both of which may address privacy and access concerns. However, there is a chasm between these two extremes. This tutorial will introduce a solution.